uday
标志形象
难民的形象

乌克兰难民状况不仅仅是一场危机

逃离俄罗斯入侵的难民潮是更广泛的流离失所模式的一部分, UD的乔治娜·拉姆齐说

“21世纪正在被取代所定义. 这很大程度上与冲突和战争有关. 这很大程度上与气候变化有关. 更重要的是与经济不稳定有关.”

这是乔治娜·拉姆齐的评价, 葡京直营APP人类学助理教授. 一周内至少有600人,面对俄罗斯的大规模军事入侵,000名难民逃离乌克兰, 2014年开始的冲突严重升级. Ramsay is a political and legal anthropologist who has conducted extensive fieldwork with refugees and displaced people, 在澳大利亚和美国重新定居, 乌干达的城市庇护和难民营以及刚果民主共和国的国内流离失所者.

uday checked in with Ramsay to discuss the exodus of refugees from Ukraine as Russian attacks on the country have intensified. 

问:你如何看待欧洲国家、美国和欧洲的经济状况.S. 以及其他盟友正在应对乌克兰日益严重的难民危机? 做得够多了吗?

拉姆齐: 我不会把美国.S. 和欧洲采取了相同的应对措施. 葡京直营APP看到美国经济正在复苏.S. 对乌克兰难民危机采取不干涉的态度,我认为这是有原因的.

葡京直营APP所看到的欧洲人的反应是前所未有的开放他们的边界. 不到一周, 超过600,000 people moved across national borders to seek refuge within an overwhelmingly welcoming set of nations wanting to provide protection to them (at least temporarily). 在这个意义上, Europe’s response has been very unusual in that they are allowing this movement and waiving legal requirements for border crossing, 也放弃COVID规则. 这是另一个前所未有的举动, the European Union (EU) is meeting tomorrow (Thursday) to discuss a completely new legal approach to responding to the displacement of people from Ukraine, which would enable them to be settled in any EU country for three years without having to go through any legal asylum process. 从很多角度来看,这都很有趣. It’s good in the sense that people need protection but it also raises questions about the kind of people that Europe offers protection to and the kind of people who, 与此形成鲜明对比的是, 他们的流动性受到限制.

只是为了比较, if you look at the response during the 2015 refugee crisis which saw hundreds of thousands of Syrians seeking asylum—or even the crisis on the Belarus-Poland border just three months ago—many refugees who were attempting to cross borders into Europe were being stopped, 被关进拘留中心, 被驱逐出境,被当做政治筹码. EU nations that were supposed to be celebrating the Schengen border approach of free movement were actually building walls, “fortressing”欧洲, 可以这么说. 葡京直营APP看到了匈牙利这样的国家, 法国和奥地利实际上设置了物理屏障来阻止难民过境. What we’ve been seeing in the past week is the removal of legal and physical borders to enable what Filippo Grandi, 联合国难民事务高级专员的负责人, 21世纪欧洲最大的难民危机是什么. 

问:美国经济增长背后的原因是什么.S. 决定采取你之前提到的不干涉的回应?

拉姆齐: 我个人对乌克兰正在发生的悲惨局势深感痛心, and I want to see extensive humanitarian responses to their protection needs shared across those nations with the resources to do so. 然而, 拜登政府还没有明确表示要为乌克兰难民提供保护, 至少在重新安置方面. 当然,这种情况可能会改变. 但我对此表示怀疑, 因为当公众向政府施压要求采取行动时, the reality is the legalities of getting refugees through the resettlement process—to get from second country of asylum into the United States, 加拿大, 在一般情况下,无论它在哪里, 这需要好几年的时间. 

现在你可能会想,“2021年的阿富汗怎么样?他说:“这是上述程序的一个绝对例外.S. managed as well as they could in terms of providing refuge to thousands of people who were unexpectedly evacuated out of Afghanistan, 基本上在一夜之间. But that was an evacuation of vulnerable people; it was not the standard process of refugee resettlement. 它带来了所有这些并发症,因为被疏散的人没有, 在大多数情况下, 在逃离前被处理安置.  So the first thing that happened is that they got put into camps that were hastily set up in decommissioned military bases. 公众问,“葡京直营APP为什么要这么做,他们不是难民吗??“嗯, we have to get the clearances and organize placements that would ordinarily be part of the processing of refugees for resettlement. That was an extraordinary legal process set up to respond to the specific situation of the evacuation of Afghan nationals, 不是标准的或常规的情况. 至少是70,000 people and we actually only just got the last of those Afghan refugees out last week just as the first Ukrainian refugees began to flee. 

所以,美国.S. 还在为阿富汗撤离行动的快速反应而晕头转向. 有一个问题是,葡京直营APP能否把乌克兰人带到这些营地,进行同样的疏散过程? 但是葡京直营APP想要延续这种营地模式吗? 那些被带进难民营的阿富汗人, 许多人在美国仍然没有得到官方承认的难民身份.S. 葡京直营APP在媒体上称他们为难民, 这就是感觉, but technically many of these people are legally termed “parolees” and many haven’t even been granted asylum in the U.S. 然而,. 他们在法律上是脆弱的. 现在,美国的移民组织.S. are fighting to have the Biden administration create a legal process that would automatically transfer the parolee status of those evacuated Afghan people into asylum status. 因为如果他们继续被归类为假释犯,技术上来说,美国政府就会.S. 政府仍有可能改变立场,比如在下一个选举周期,将他们驱逐出境. 申请庇护的过程很累人,需要人们重新经历他们的创伤. 此外, resettlement organizations have been gutted by funding cuts from the previous administration and the economic impact of the pandemic. 考虑到所有这些复杂的因素,美国是否应该采取措施来解决这个问题.S. 是否有能力管理另一个快速的难民安置程序. 随着欧洲的介入,拜登政府似乎不愿尝试.

令人失望的是, the Biden administration has not committed to providing what’s called “Temporary Protection Status” to Ukrainians who are already in the U.S.就葡京直营APP的保护责任而言,这将是一个简单而重要的举措. 如果你是持学生签证或工作签证的乌克兰人, there is currently no recognition of the fact that your country may be unsafe to return to when your visa runs out. 美国政府未来可能会重新审视这一问题, 但现在甚至没有采取行动提供这种基本的保护:这告诉葡京直营APP什么? [编者按: 3月3日, the Biden administration announced it was granting Temporary Protection Status to those Ukrainians already in the U.S.]

另一件需要记住的事情是,乌克兰危机的发展如此迅速. 许多乌克兰人还不确定自己想做什么. 这对他们来说是永久的搬迁吗? 他们还能回去吗? 如果你设身处地为他们想想, 如果你已经建立了这个家和生活,你会准备在一周的时间内说, “我想在另一个国家定居?“在葡京直营APP开始说之前,让葡京直营APP把所有这些人都带到这里来保护, 让葡京直营APP试着了解一下乌克兰人自己想做什么.  

Q: There have been charges that African students trying to leave Ukraine have faced racism and segregation at the border. 这就是葡京直营APP在这些混乱、危机的情况下通常看到的丑陋情况吗?

拉姆齐: 这种情况体现了移民在欧盟边境受到的普遍待遇. Many countries in the EU practice implicit forms of border racialization that make the crossing of those who are seen as belonging much easier than the crossing of those who are seen as “others.在这种情况下, 葡京直营APP看到一些来自非洲的人, 中东, 南亚和亚洲背景的人试图穿越乌克兰他们的行动被区别对待, 带着怀疑甚至敌意, 而不是那些被认为是欧洲人或乌克兰人, 种族. 据我所知, 关于边境发生的事情,有一些与某些种族主义团体的争论. Some Ukrainian officials claimed that the prevention of some groups from crossing the border was the result of a visa issue, 不是因为种族歧视. 但我也读过其他故事,其中明显存在种族主义, in the sense that people have described being beaten by border guards on the Ukrainian side when attempting to pass through, 或者被带到不允许通过的单独的边境大门. 虽然我不知道具体情况, 它涉及到一个更广泛的问题,即在欧洲的背景下,谁的流动受到批准,谁的流动受到控制. 

问:你如何看待这场难民危机? You’ve had people make an initial decision to get out and it seems that will be intensified as people flee a war zone. 

拉姆齐: 到2020年底,联合国估计有82个.全世界有500万人流离失所. 我总是给我的学生讲这个数字:这是德国的人口, 是澳大利亚人口的三倍, 我的祖国. 21世纪正在被取代所定义. 这很大程度上与冲突和战争有关. 这很大程度上与气候变化有关. 更重要的是与经济不稳定有关. 关于这些流离失所的问题, 葡京直营APP不应该再用危机这个词了, 这正在成为本世纪生活的一个可预见的方面,葡京直营APP需要发展政治, 从经济和社会的角度来看待这个问题. 

而乌克兰的局势很紧急, 流离失所- -他们的和其他人的- -不是一个暂时的问题. 目前, 乌克兰难民问题备受关注,欧盟也做出了相应回应, 用一种非常人道主义的方法. 但我希望大家不要失去动力. 六个月后,对流离失所的乌克兰人的回应还会如此人道主义吗? 一年?  

葡京直营APP更广泛地思考难民和流离失所,葡京直营APP正在全球范围内目睹, this cycling through of public attention — and not recognizing the double standards of how nations respond to flows of refugee migration — are real issues we have to address. 

在流离失所和难民方面, 葡京直营APP仍然在使用二战后的工具. 几乎每个国家都继续使用联合国难民事务高级专员(UNHCR)对难民的法律定义, 是在战争后发展起来的吗. 但葡京直营APP正面临着大规模流离失所的全新状况. 这个定义是基于个人迫害的. You are only a refugee if you are an individual being persecuted for your political beliefs or you are a targeted group. 那么战争的灰色地带呢, 比如在乌克兰, 人们正在逃离暴力的影响,但他们自己不一定是暴力的目标? 那些将要逃离这场战争和其他战争的经济后果的人们的处境如何? 那些逃离海平面上升的人怎么办, 或酷热, 或者由于不稳定的天气模式或总体政治不稳定而导致的洪水不安全? 联合国难民署的定义不适用于这些情况. 写于1951年,怎么可能?

我认为葡京直营APP需要一个更长远的方法. We need to start developing different legal instruments and more robust responses to displacement that center the humanity of those fleeing situations that are unlivable. 葡京直营APP需要记住这一点, 当葡京直营APP对眼前“危机”的关注减弱时, 葡京直营APP很有可能用法律手段保护这些乌克兰人, 但世界各地数百万其他难民也会辜负他们的期望,加剧他们的脆弱性. Continuing to educate ourselves on these situations and petitioning our politicians to shift our current approach is crucial to ensuring a more just world.

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